Table of contents

4. MONITORING (SCHEMA MONITORING)

Article 8.1 of the WFD requires Member States to establish monitoring programmes for the assessment of the status of surface water and of groundwater in order to provide a coherent and comprehensive overview of water status within each RBD. These requirements include monitoring of Protected Areas as far as the status of surface water and groundwater is concerned. The results of monitoring play a key role in determining whether water bodies are of good status and what measures need to be included in the RBMPs in order to reach good status by 2015. Precise and reliable monitoring results are therefore a prerequisite for sound planning of investments in the Programmes of Measures (PoMs).

The WFD implementation reports required by Article 18 of the WFD should include, among other aspects, ‘a review of the status of surface water and groundwater in the Community undertaken in co-ordination with the European Environment Agency’. In the first implementation report, this review was based on both the State of the Environment (SoE) information provided by EEA Member Countries through the EIONET reporting process, and the status and pressure results reported at water body level (chapter 2 and 3 of this guidance) by Member States. Better streamlining between WFD and SoE reporting is still needed to ensure the most beneficial outcome of this two-level approach. For the second RBMPs, the review of status under Article 18 could significantly benefit from the inclusion of the WFD monitoring results on water quality data and biological data into the overall status assessment. Details could be included on the development of progress made since the first RBMPs, for example in the trends of status, pressures and impacts, and where objectives have not been fully met.

Reporting should reflect the monitoring carried out that has informed the second RBMPs. Given that monitoring programmes are usually dynamic and multi-annual (i.e. in the cases of quality elements with lower frequencies of monitoring), reporting should reflect, as accurately as possible, the monitoring that has informed the preparation of the second RBMPs. Reporting is not intended to include information regarding future monitoring programmes or planned changes.

The selection of the quality elements (QEs) and parameters to be monitored should enable the detection of all significant pressures on water bodies. This is particularly important where the pressures and impacts assessments may not have been adequate enough to identify all potential pressures and impacts in the RBD, perhaps because of the lack of information or methods, or because of unexpected, anthropogenic activities within the RBD.

The results of surveillance monitoring should ensure that the potential impacts of all pressures on water bodies in the RBDs are detected. Incomplete coverage of QEs and water bodies in surveillance monitoring could lead to the non-detection of significant pressures, the incorrect classification of water status, and inappropriate targeting of measures. Surveillance monitoring must also be able to detect long-term natural changes and those arising from anthropogenic pressures.

The selection of biological quality elements (BQEs) for operational monitoring should focus on those most sensitive to the identified pressures and impacts on water bodies. The results of operational monitoring are used (together with the results of surveillance monitoring) in the classification of water bodies and to monitor progress of implemented measures in achieving the objectives of the Directive.

The results of monitoring are used in the assessment and classification of the status of water bodies (ecological and chemical for surface waters, chemical and quantitative for groundwater). The amount of monitoring undertaken in terms of QEs, parameters, frequency and numbers of monitoring sites should be sufficient to obtain a reliable and robust assessment of the status of all water bodies in the RBDs. Insufficient monitoring leads to a low confidence in the classification of water bodies and, as a result, the (expensive) measures required to achieve objectives may be incorrectly targeted, and/or objectives such as the restoration of water bodies to good status may not be achieved.

Directive 2009/90/EC lays down technical specifications for the chemical analysis and monitoring of water status with the aim of improving the quality and comparability of monitoring results by establishing minimum performance criteria for methods of analysis to be applied by Member States when monitoring water status, sediment and biota, as well as rules for demonstrating the quality of analytical results.

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Class: Programme (monitoring)

  1. Please include here any comments which apply to all the schema elements in this Class.
  2. In addition to those general schema element level comments, we welcome your views on: a) whether you think this Class can be simplified;  and b) whether you think the linkages with other reporting Classes or Schemas can be improved, and how;

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euProgrammeCode - Required.

Unique EU code of the monitoring programme. Prefix the monitoring programme’s national, unique code with the Member State’s 2-alpha character ISO country code. The same code reported in 2007 and 2010 should be used for monitoring programmes still in existence.

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programmeName - Required.

Readily understandable name of the monitoring programme in English that is meaningful outside of the RBD or Member State. It should reflect its purpose, such as surveillance, operational, investigative or drinking water monitoring programme, and the water categories in which it is undertaken.

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programmeCategoryRW - Required. (YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for rivers.

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programmeCategoryLW - Required. (YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for lakes.

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programmeCategoryTW - Required.(YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for transitional waters.

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programmeCategoryCW - Required.(YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for coastal waters.

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programmeCategoryTeW - Required.(YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for territorial waters.

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programmeCategoryGW - Required.(YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate if this monitoring programme is used for groundwater.

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programmeReference - Required.(ReferenceType )

Provide references or hyperlinks to the documents and sections where relevant information relating to the monitoring programmes can be found.  Guidance on what should be included in this document is provided in Section 4.3.4.

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Class: MonitoringSite

  1. Please include here any comments which apply to all the schema elements in this Class.
  2. In addition to those general schema element level comments, we welcome your views on: a) whether you think this Class can be simplified;  and b) whether you think the linkages with other reporting Classes or Schemas can be improved, and how;

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euMonitoringSiteCode - Required.

Unique EU code of the surface water monitoring site. Prefix the surface water monitoring site’s national, unique code with the Member State’s 2-alpha character ISO country code.

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euMonitoringSiteName - Required.

Unique EU code of the surface or groundwater body as reported in the SWB or GWB schemas in which the monitoring site is physically located in or near (in the rare cases where the monitoring site is not physically located in the water body).

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euWaterBodyCode - Required.

Unique EU code of the surface or groundwater body as reported in the SWB or GWB schemas in which the monitoring site is physically located in or near (in the rare cases where the monitoring site is not physically located in the water body). 

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waterCategory - Required. (WaterCategory_Enum)

Report the water category of the water body that is monitored (where the site is physically located in or near).

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ecologicalMonitoring - Required.(YesNoNotApplicable_Union_Enum)

Indicate whether the monitoring site is used for ecological monitoring. For groundwater monitoring sites report ‘Not applicable’

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chemicalMonitoring - Required.(YesNoCode_Enum)

Indicate whether the surface or groundwater monitoring site is used for chemical monitoring.

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quantitativeMonitoring - Required.(YesNoNotApplicable_Union_Enum)

Indicate whether the groundwater monitoring site is used for quantitative monitoring. For surface water monitoring sites report ‘Not applicable’

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quantitativeFrequency - Conditional.

If the groundwater monitoring site is used for quantitative monitoring, report the frequency of monitoring.

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quantitativeCycle - Conditional.

If the groundwater monitoring site is used for quantitative monitoring, report the cycle of monitoring.

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quantitativeLastMonitored - Conditional.

If the groundwater monitoring site is used for quantitative monitoring, report the most recent year in the format YYYY that was monitored. Enter 9999 if parameter has yet to be measured.

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wellSpring - Conditional.(WellSpring_Enum)

For groundwater sites, indicate whether the groundwater monitoring site is a well, spring or other.

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depth - Conditional.(MonitoringDepth_Enum)

For groundwater monitoring sites, indicate the groundwater layer within the groundwater body in which sampling occurs. Please see visualization of multi-layered GWBs in sections 1.3 and 2.3 of Annex 4.

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Class SWEcologicalMonitoring(child of MonitoringSite) 

  1. Please include here any comments which apply to all the schema elements in this Class.
  2. In addition to those general schema element level comments, we welcome your views on: a) whether you think this Class can be simplified;  and b) whether you think the linkages with other reporting Classes or Schemas can be improved, and how;

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qeCode - Required.(QualityElement_Enum)

Select all the quality elements (QEs) monitored at this surface water monitoring site from the enumeration list.

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qeDescription - Conditional.

If ‘QE1-5 - Other species’ has been selected from the enumeration list and reported under qualityElementCode, provide the name of the other QE(s) monitored at this surface water monitoring site

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qeFrequency - Required.

Report the frequency at which each QE is monitored at this surface water monitoring site.

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qeCycle - Required.

Report the monitoring cycle relating to each QE monitored at this surface water monitoring site.

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qeLastMonitored - Required.

Report the most recent year in the format YYYY that each QE was monitored at this surface water monitoring site. Enter 9999 if the QE has yet to be measured.

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Class ChemicalMonitoring(child of MonitoringSite) 

  1. Please include here any comments which apply to all the schema elements in this Class.
  2. In addition to those general schema element level comments, we welcome your views on: a) whether you think this Class can be simplified;  and b) whether you think the linkages with other reporting Classes or Schemas can be improved, and how;

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chemicalSubstanceCode - Required.(ChemicalSubstances_Union_Enum)

Report each chemical substance or parameter which is monitored at this site.

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chemicalSubstanceOther - Conditional.

If ‘chemicalSubstanceCode’ is ‘Other’ please indicate in this field the CAS number (if relevant) and the name of the chemical substance.

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chemicalMatrix - Required.(Matrix_Enum)

Report the matrix in which each chemical substance is monitored. For groundwater monitoring sites report ‘Water’.

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chemicalPurpose - Required.(ChemicalPurpose_Enum)

Report if the chemical monitoring is used for status assessment, trend assessment or both.

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chemicalFrequency - Required.

Report the frequency at which each chemical substance is monitored at this monitoring site.

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chemicalCycle - Required.

Report the monitoring cycle relating to each chemical substance monitored at this monitoring site.

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chemicalLastMonitored - Required.

Report the most recent year in the format YYYY that each chemical substance was monitored at this monitoring site. Enter 9999 if the chemical substance has yet to be measured.

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Class MonitoringPurpose(child of MonitoringSite)

  1. Please include here any comments which apply to all the schema elements in this Class.
  2. In addition to those general schema element level comments, we welcome your views on: a) whether you think this Class can be simplified;  and b) whether you think the linkages with other reporting Classes or Schemas can be improved, and how;

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monitoringPurpose - Required.(MonitoringPurpose_Enum)

Report each monitoring purpose of each monitoring site.

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euProgrammeCode - Required.

Report the EU monitoring programme code under which the relevant purpose is implemented in this site.

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Guidance on contents of RBMPs and background documents

(Please see the full text of this sub-section in the WFD Reporting Guidance 2016 or above chapter)

Include here any comments that relate to the information contained in this sub-section of the Reporting Guidance, namely concerning information you think could/should be reported electronically and information which you believe should not be included in the River Basin Management Plans or background documents.

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